Returns the present value of a lump sum
due in a number of periods.

## Syntax

PVLUMPSUM(`rate`, `periods`, `amount`)

## Parameters

`rate`
Numeric. The interest rate per period.

`periods`
Numeric. The total number of periods.

`amount`
Numeric. The payment made at the end of the last period.

## Output

Numeric. The result is returned
to two decimal places.

## Remarks

You can use this function to determine
the present value of an amount to be received or paid in the future.
The present value is the amount that a payment due in the future
is worth today, based on an assumed interest rate. For example,
if you owe money at a future date, the present value is the amount
you need to put in the bank now, with compound interest, to cover
the debt when it is due.

If you enter an obviously invalid
parameter such as a negative interest rate, *ACL* returns an error.

## Example

Assuming an interest rate of 11%
per annum compounded monthly, the present value of $10,000 due in
three years is:

`PVLUMPSUM(0.11/12, 3 * 12, 10000)`

returns **7200.05**.